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When a warm hand is immersed in water that is 70øF (21øC), heat is transferred from the hand to the water through a process called:
The transfer of heat to circulating air, such as when cool air moves across the body’s surface, is called:
The body’s natural cooling mechanism, in which sweat is converted to a gas, is called:
Heat loss from the body through respiration occurs when:
Shivering is a mechanism in which the body generates heat by:
Covering a patient’s _________ will significantly minimize radiation heat loss.
Hypothermia occurs when the core body temperature falls below:
The body’s natural protective mechanisms against heat loss are:
Compared to adults, infants and children are at higher risk for hypothermia for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
Which of the following conditions would be the LEAST likely to increase a person’s risk of hypothermia?
To assess a patient’s general temperature, pull back on your glove and place the back of your hand on his or her skin at the:
To obtain the MOST accurate reading of a patient’s core body temperature, you should place a special hypothermia thermometer:
A patient with a core body temperature of 95øF (35øC) will MOST likely experience:
Which of the following would be the LEAST likely to occur in a patient with a core body temperature of between 89øF (32øC) and 92øF (33øC)?
A person’s ability to shiver is lost when his or her body temperature falls below:
All of the following terms are used to describe a cold body part that is not frozen, EXCEPT:
Patients with generalized hypothermia are at an increased risk of a local cold injury because:
A 30-year-old male was rescued after being lost in the woods for approximately 18 hours. The outside temperature is 30øF (?1øC). He is immediately placed in the warmed ambulance, where you perform a primary assessment. He is unconscious, pale, and apneic. After initiating artificial ventilations, you should:
Hypothermia can worsen internal bleeding secondary to:
Rough handling of a hypothermic patient with a pulse may cause:
Your assessment of a 23-year-old female reveals a core body temperature of 93.4øF (34øC). She is conscious, answers your questions appropriately, is shivering, and complains of nausea. Her skin is cold and pale, her muscles appear rigid, and her respirations are rapid. In addition to monitoring her ABCs, administering oxygen, and turning up the heat in the back of the ambulance, you should:
You are transporting a 28-year-old man with a frostbitten foot. The patient’s vital signs are stable and he denies any other injuries or symptoms. The weather is treacherous and your transport time to the hospital is approximately 45 minutes. During transport, you should:
The two MOST efficient ways for the body to eliminate excess heat are:
Which of the following MOST accurately describes hyperthermia?
High air temperature reduces the body’s ability to lose heat by:
Geriatric patients, newborns, and infants are especially prone to hyperthermia because they:
When the body loses sweat, it also loses:
In order for sweating to be an effective cooling mechanism:
High humidity reduces the body’s ability to lose heat through:
Common signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Heatstroke occurs when:
Signs of late heatstroke include:
Which of the following medications increases a person’s risk of a heat-related emergency?
You receive a call to a residence for a sick patient. Upon your arrival, you find the patient, a 53-year-old diabetic male, lying down on his front porch. His wife tells you that he had been mowing the lawn in the heat for the past 3 hours. The patient is confused and has hot, moist skin. His pulse is weak and thready, and his blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg. In addition to administering 100% oxygen, you should:
You are dispatched to a local high school track and field event for a 16-year-old male who fainted. The outside temperature is approximately 95øF (35øC) with high humidity. Upon your arrival, the patient is conscious, alert, and complains of nausea and a headache. His skin is cool, clammy, and pale. You should:
Geriatric patients are at a higher risk for heatstroke because:
Drowning is MOST accurately defined as:
Which of the following statements regarding drowning is correct?
A 20-year-old male was pulled from cold water by his friends. The length of his submersion is not known and was not witnessed. You perform a primary assessment and determine that the patient is apneic and has a slow, weak pulse. You should:
The EMT must assume that any unwitnessed water-related incident is accompanied by:
You and your partner are standing by at a large social event at a river resort when a frantic woman tells you that she found a young male floating face-down in the water. Nobody claims to have witnessed the event. After you and your partner enter the water and reach the patient, you should:
The diving reflex may allow a person to survive extended periods of submersion in cold water secondary to:
Most of the serious injuries associated with scuba diving are caused by:
An air embolism associated with diving occurs when:
Signs and symptoms of an air embolism include all of the following, EXCEPT:
The MOST prominent symptom of decompression sickness is:
You respond to a local lake where a diver complains of difficulty breathing that occurred immediately after rapidly ascending from a depth of approximately 30?. On assessment, you note that he has cyanosis around his lips and has pink froth coming from his nose and mouth. You should:
Breath-holding syncope is caused by a decreased stimulus to breathe and occurs when:
Burns associated with lightning strikes are typically:
Which of the following statements regarding lightning strikes is correct?
You and your partner respond to a park where several people were reportedly struck by lightning. When you arrive, you find three patients. The first patient is lying supine on the ground; he is unresponsive and does not appear to be breathing. The second patient is ambulatory, appears confused, and is holding his arm against his chest. The third patient is sitting on the ground holding the sides of his head. After calling for backup, you should:
The venom of a black widow spider is toxic to the:
In contrast to the brown recluse spider, the black widow spider:
The venom of a brown recluse spider is cytotoxic, meaning that it:
You are assessing a 33-year-old male who complains of severe abdominal pain, weakness, and nausea. He tells you that he was gathering wood to build a fire when he felt a sudden, sharp pain on the back of his hand. Your assessment reveals that the patient’s abdomen is rigid and painful to palpation. You should suspect:
All of the following snakes are pit vipers, EXCEPT for the:
Which of the following is an early sign of pit viper envenomation?
While drinking beer with his friends near a creek, a 31-year-old male was bitten on the leg by an unidentified snake. The patient is conscious and alert and in no apparent distress. Your assessment of his leg reveals two small puncture marks with minimal pain and swelling. In addition to administering oxygen and providing reassurance, further care for this patient should include:
You are dispatched to a residence for a young female who is sick. The patient complains of a rash to her lower extremities and truncal area. Your assessment reveals a small, painful blister on her inner thigh. As your partner is taking the patient’s vital signs, she states that she and her family returned from a camping trip two days ago. On the basis of this patient’s presentation, you should suspect:
A 48-year-old male was stung on the leg by a jellyfish while swimming in the ocean. He is conscious and alert, but complains of intense pain at the wound site. Specific treatment for this patient includes: