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Deoxygenated blood from the body returns to the:
Blood that is ejected from the right ventricle:
Which of the following blood vessels transports oxygenated blood?
What is the function of the left atrium?
The left ventricle has the thickest walls because it:
The electrical impulse generated by the heart originates in the:
When an electrical impulse reaches the AV node, it is slowed for a brief period of time so that:
The ability of cardiac muscle cells to contract spontaneously without a stimulus from a nerve source is called:
The electrical stimulus that originates in the heart’s primary pacemaker is controlled by impulses from the brain that arrive by way of the:
Which of the following is NOT a function of the sympathetic nervous system?
In contrast to the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system:
When the myocardium requires more oxygen:
The myocardium receives oxygenated blood from the __________, which originate(s) from the __________.
Which of the following would cause the greatest increase in cardiac output?
The right coronary artery supplies blood to the:
The head and brain receive their supply of oxygenated blood from the:
The descending aorta divides into the two iliac arteries at the level of the:
Which of the following veins is located inferior to the trunk?
The iliac arteries immediately subdivide into the:
The inferior vena cava returns deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart from all of the following areas, EXCEPT the:
Cardiac output may decrease if the heart beats too rapidly because:
When afterload increases:
The posterior tibial pulse can be palpated:
Ischemic heart disease is MOST accurately defined as:
Narrowing of the coronary arteries due to a buildup of fatty deposits is called:
A patient with atherosclerotic heart disease experiences chest pain during exertion because the:
An acute myocardial infarction (AMI) occurs when:
Major risk factors for AMI include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Risk factors for AMI that cannot be controlled include:
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a term used to describe:
Common signs and symptoms of AMI include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Which of the following statements regarding the pain associated with AMI is correct?
The MOST common reason that many people experiencing AMI do not seek immediate medical attention is because they:
When documenting a patient’s description of his or her chest pain or discomfort, the EMT should:
Rapid, labored breathing in a patient with signs and symptoms of AMI should make you suspicious for:
Sudden death following AMI is MOST often caused by:
Ventricular tachycardia causes hypotension because:
Which of the following cardiac arrhythmias has the greatest chance of deteriorating into a pulseless rhythm?
The purpose of defibrillation is to:
Cardiogenic shock following AMI is caused by:
Which of the following signs or symptoms would you NOT expect to encounter in a patient with congestive heart failure?
You are dispatched to a residence for a 56-year-old male with an altered mental status. Upon arrival at the scene, the patient’s wife tells you that he complained of chest pain the day before, but would not allow her to call EMS. The patient is semiconscious; has rapid, shallow respirations; and has a thready pulse. You should:
A 67-year-old female presents with difficulty breathing and chest discomfort that awakened her from her sleep. She states that she has congestive heart failure, has had two previous heart attacks, and has prescribed nitroglycerin. She is conscious and alert with adequate breathing. Her blood pressure is 94/64 mm Hg and her heart rate is 120 beats/min. Treatment for this patient includes:
You are assessing a 49-year-old man who complains of chest pressure that began the night before. He is conscious, but anxious, and tells you he has a history of angina and hypertension. After applying high-flow oxygen, you expose his chest to auscultate his lungs and note that he has a nitroglycerin patch on his right upper chest. His skin is cool and pale, his blood pressure is 78/50 mm Hg, and his pulse is 110 beats/min and irregular. You should:
Which of the following signs is commonly observed in patients with right-sided heart failure?
Signs and symptoms of a hypertensive emergency would MOST likely be delayed in patients who:
Common signs and symptoms of a hypertensive emergency include:
A dissecting aortic aneurysm occurs when:
In contrast to AMI, a dissecting aortic aneurysm:
A 66-year-old woman presents with a stabbing pain in the middle of her chest that radiates to her back. She tells you that the pain suddenly began about 30 minutes ago and has been severe since the onset. She has a history of hypertension, but admits to being noncompliant with her antihypertensive medications. When you assess her, you find that her blood pressure is significantly higher in her left arm than it is in her right arm. What are her signs and symptoms MOST indicative of?
Upon arriving at the residence of a patient with a possible cardiac problem, it is MOST important to:
A 49-year-old male presents with an acute onset of crushing chest pain and diaphoresis. You should:
A 66-year-old female with a history of hypertension and diabetes presents with substernal chest pressure of 2 hours’ duration. Her blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg, her pulse is 100 beats/min and irregular, and her respirations are 22 breaths/min with adequate depth. The patient does not have prescribed nitroglycerin, but her husband does. You should:
Which of the following is of LEAST pertinence when obtaining medical history information from a patient complaining of chest discomfort?
Which of the following medications is commonly given to patients with chest pain to prevent blood clots from forming or getting bigger?
Nitroglycerin relieves cardiac-related chest pain by:
Common side effects of nitroglycerin include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Which of the following statements regarding nitroglycerin is correct?
When would it be MOST appropriate for a patient to take his or her prescribed nitroglycerin?
Most patients are instructed by their physician to take up to _______ doses of nitroglycerin before calling EMS.
Which of the following represents the MOST appropriate method of assisting a patient with his or her prescribed nitroglycerin tablet or spray?
A 40-year-old man is in cardiac arrest. Your partner is performing CPR. You are attaching the AED when the patient’s wife tells you that he has an automatic implanted cardiac defibrillator (AICD). The AED advises that a shock is indicated. What should you do?
In contrast to monophasic defibrillation, biphasic defibrillation:
The EMT should use an AED on a child older than 1 year if:
The MOST common error associated with the use of the AED is:
The main legal risk in using the AED is:
Prior to attaching the AED to a cardiac arrest patient, the EMT should:
You are dispatched to a convenience store for a patient who passed out. Upon arriving at the scene, you find two bystanders performing CPR on the patient, a 58-year-old male. Your initial action should be to:
Defibrillator pads are placed on the patient’s chest with one pad to the:
After the AED has delivered a shock, the EMT should:
The AED has delivered a shock to an elderly male in cardiac arrest. Following 2 minutes of CPR, you reanalyze the patient’s cardiac rhythm and receive a “no shock advised” message. After further resuscitation, you restore a palpable carotid pulse. Your next action should be to:
Angina pectoris occurs when:
Which of the following is a major difference between angina pectoris and AMI?
When treating a patient with chest pain, you should assume that he or she is having an AMI because:
Prompt transport of a patient with a suspected AMI is important because: