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Which of the following structures is NOT found in the upper airway?
The leaf-shaped structure located superior to the larynx is called the:
The __________ cartilage is a firm ring that forms the inferior part of the larynx.
Structures of the lower airway include all of the following, EXCEPT the:
The actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs in the:
Which of the following structures is contained within the mediastinum?
The physical act of moving air into and out of the lungs is called:
Inhalation occurs when the:
The diaphragm functions as an involuntary muscle when a person:
The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the blood of the capillaries is called:
Gas exchange in the lungs is facilitated by:
In the presence of oxygen, the mitochondria of the cells convert glucose into energy through a process called:
Without adequate oxygen, the body’s cells:
The primary waste product of aerobic metabolism is:
Central chemoreceptors located in the medulla provide feedback to increase the rate and depth of breathing when they sense:
An adult at rest should have a respiratory rate that ranges between:
Which of the following patients is breathing adequately?
Which of the following would NOT cause a decrease in tidal volume?
Irregular respirations characterized by an increasing rate and depth of breathing followed by periods of apnea are called:
An unconscious patient found in a prone position must be placed in a supine position in case he or she:
You are dispatched to a residence where a middle-aged man was found unconscious in his front yard. There are no witnesses who can tell you what happened. You find him in a prone position; his eyes are closed and he is not moving. Your FIRST action should be to:
What is the MOST common cause of airway obstruction in an unconscious patient?
In which of the following patients would the head tilt–chin lift maneuver be the MOST appropriate method of opening the airway?
The jaw-thrust maneuver is used to open the airway of patients with suspected:
Which of the following patients would MOST likely require insertion of an oropharyngeal airway?
A 19-year-old female is found unconscious by her roommate. Your primary assessment reveals that her breathing is inadequate. As you insert an oropharyngeal airway, she begins to gag violently. You should:
To select the proper size oropharyngeal airway, you should measure from the:
The nasopharyngeal airway is MOST beneficial because it:
The MOST serious complication associated with using a nasopharyngeal airway in a patient with trauma to the head or face is:
A nasopharyngeal airway is inserted:
The MOST significant complication associated with oropharyngeal suctioning is:
Proper technique for suctioning the oropharynx of an adult patient includes:
You have inserted an oral airway and are ventilating an apneic woman with a bag-mask device. She suddenly begins regurgitating large amounts of vomit. You should:
A 23-year-old male experienced severe head trauma after his motorcycle collided with an oncoming truck. He is unconscious, has rapid and shallow breathing, and has copious bloody secretions in his mouth. How should you manage his airway?
Which of the following patients should you place in the recovery position?
Which of the following organs or tissues can survive the longest without oxygen?
The purpose of the pin-indexing system that has been established for compressed gas cylinders is to:
The pressure of gas in a full cylinder of oxygen is approximately _______ pounds per square inch (psi).
Which of the following oxygen flowmeters is NOT affected by gravity and can be used in any position when attached to an oxygen cylinder?
Tidal volume is defined as the volume of air that:
What is the minute volume of a patient with a tidal volume of 500 mL, a dead space volume of 150 mL, and a respiratory rate of 16 breaths/min?
Which of the following factors will cause a decreased minute volume in an adult?
An oxygen cylinder should be taken out of service and refilled when the pressure inside it is less than:
Which of the following statements regarding oxygen is correct?
A patient who is suspected of being hypoxic and is breathing adequately should be given supplemental oxygen with a:
With a good mask-to-face seal and an oxygen flow rate of 15 L/min, the nonrebreathing mask is capable of delivering up to ______% inspired oxygen.
Prior to applying a nonrebreathing mask on a patient, you must ensure that the:
At a flow rate of 6 L/min, a nasal cannula can deliver an approximate oxygen concentration of up to:
The nasal cannula is MOST appropriately used in the prehospital setting:
A 51-year-old female presents with a sudden onset of difficulty breathing. She is conscious and alert and able to speak in complete sentences. Her respirations are 22 breaths/min and regular. You should:
What occurs when a patient is breathing very rapidly and shallowly?
As the single EMT managing an apneic patient’s airway, the preferred initial method of providing ventilations is the:
You and your partner are treating a 66-year-old man who experienced a sudden onset of respiratory distress. He is conscious but is unable to follow simple verbal commands. Further assessment reveals that his breathing is severely labored and his oxygen saturation is 80%. You should:
Which of the following statements regarding positive-pressure ventilation is correct?
How does positive-pressure ventilation affect cardiac output?
Despite your attempts to coach a conscious young female’s respirations, she continues to hyperventilate with a marked reduction in tidal volume. You should:
All of the following will help minimize the risk of gastric distention when ventilating an apneic patient with a bag-mask device, EXCEPT:
Which of the following is the MOST reliable indicator of adequately performed bag-mask ventilations in an apneic adult with a pulse?
How does CPAP improve oxygenation and ventilation in patients with certain respiratory problems?
CPAP is indicated for patients who:
You are ventilating a patient with a stoma; however, air is escaping from the mouth and nose. To prevent this, you should:
A 37-year-old male has an apparent foreign body airway obstruction. He is conscious and alert and is coughing forcefully. His skin is pink, warm, and moist. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
While eating dinner, your partner suddenly grabs his throat and has a panicked look on his face. He has a weak cough, faint inspiratory stridor, and cyanosis around the lips. You should:
Which of the following is NOT a possible cause of airway obstruction?
In contrast to inhalation, exhalation:
Hypoxia is MOST accurately defined as:
The hypoxic drive—the primary stimulus to breathe for patients with certain chronic respiratory diseases—is influenced by:
Which of the following is a late sign of hypoxia?
Which of the following statements regarding oxygenation and ventilation is correct?
Each cell of the body combines nutrients and oxygen and produces energy and waste products through a process called: