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Capillary sphincters are:
One of the primary waste products of normal cellular metabolism that must be removed from the body by the lungs is:
When the body senses a state of hypoperfusion, the sympathetic nervous system releases epinephrine, the effects of which include:
When perfusion to the core of the body decreases:
Pulmonary edema and impaired ventilation occur during:
Which of the following injuries would MOST likely cause obstructive shock?
Distributive shock occurs when:
Which of the following MOST accurately describes septic shock?
Patients develop septic shock secondary to:
A 70-year-old female was recently discharged from the hospital following a total hip replacement. Today, she presents with restlessness, tachycardia, and a blood pressure of 100/64 mm Hg. Her skin is warm and moist. You should be MOST suspicious that she is experiencing:
Neurogenic shock occurs when:
In an acute injury setting, neurogenic shock is commonly accompanied by:
Which of the following statements regarding anaphylactic shock is MOST correct?
Which of the following clinical signs is unique to anaphylactic shock?
Temporary, widespread vasodilation and syncope caused by a sudden nervous system reaction MOST accurately describes:
Which of the following would MOST likely result in hemorrhagic shock?
Hypovolemic shock caused by severe burns is the result of a loss of:
When assessing a patient with signs and symptoms of shock, it is MOST important to remember that:
Hypotension in a child with blunt or penetrating trauma is particularly significant because:
Clinical signs of compensated shock include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Which of the following patients is in decompensated shock?
When treating an 80-year-old patient who is in shock, it is important to remember that:
All of the following conditions would make you suspect shock, EXCEPT:
A 59-year-old male presents with severe vomiting and diarrhea of 3 days’ duration. He is confused and diaphoretic, and his radial pulses are absent. His blood pressure is 78/50 mm Hg. After applying 100% supplemental oxygen, you should:
A 25-year-old unrestrained female struck the steering wheel with her chest when her car hit a tree while traveling at a high rate of speed. She has signs and symptoms of shock, which you suspect are the result of intrathoracic bleeding. Which of the following interventions will provide this patient with the greatest chance for survival?
You are transporting a 33-year-old male who was involved in a motor vehicle crash. You have addressed all immediate and potentially life-threatening conditions and have stabilized his condition with the appropriate treatment. With an estimated time of arrival at the hospital of 20 minutes, you should:
A 27-year-old male was stabbed in the chest during a disagreement at a poker game. As you approach him, you see that a knife is impaled in his chest. Before you make physical contact with the patient, it is MOST important to:
You respond to a residence for a patient with a severe leg injury following an accident with a chainsaw. When you arrive, you find the patient, a 44-year-old male, lying supine in the backyard. He has a partial amputation of his right lower leg that is actively bleeding. The patient is conscious and breathing adequately; however, he is restless and his skin is diaphoretic. You should:
A 56-year-old male is found semiconscious by his wife. Your assessment reveals that his respirations are rapid and shallow, his pulse is rapid and irregular, and his blood pressure is low. The patient’s wife states that he complained of left arm pain and nausea the day before, but would not allow her to call 9-1-1. The MOST likely cause of this patient’s present condition is:
A construction worker fell approximately 30 feet. He is semiconscious with rapid, shallow respirations. Further assessment reveals deformity to the thoracic region of his spine. His blood pressure is 70/50 mm Hg, his pulse is 66 beats/min and weak, and his skin is warm and dry. In addition to spinal immobilization and rapid transport, the MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
A 19-year-old male was stung multiple times by fire ants. He is experiencing obvious signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock. You administer 100% oxygen and give him epinephrine via subcutaneous injection. Upon reassessment, you determine that his condition has not improved. You should:
You are dispatched to a residence for a 40-year-old female who fainted. Upon your arrival, the patient is conscious and alert, and states that she is fine. Her husband tells you that she fainted after receiving news that her sister was killed in a car crash. You offer oxygen to the patient, but she refuses to accept it. At this point, your primary concern should be to: