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Dyspnea is MOST accurately defined as:
In what area of the lungs does respiration occur?
The two processes that occur during respiration are:
In order for efficient pulmonary gas exchange to occur:
In a healthy individual, the brain stem stimulates breathing on the basis of:
When the level of arterial carbon dioxide rises above normal:
Which of the following is MOST characteristic of adequate breathing?
An alert patient presents with a regular pattern of inhalation and exhalation and breath sounds that are clear and equal on both sides of the chest. These findings are consistent with:
Which of the following statements regarding the hypoxic drive is MOST correct?
When administering supplemental oxygen to a hypoxemic patient with a chronic lung disease, you should:
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND), rales, and dependent edema are clinical indicators of:
Which of the following conditions would LEAST likely result in hypoxia?
Which of the following statements regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is correct?
The respiratory distress that accompanies emphysema is caused by:
Asthma is caused by a response of the:
At the onset of an acute asthma attack, patients commonly experience difficulty breathing and:
A 30-year-old male presents with acute shortness of breath, widespread hives, and facial swelling. He denies any past medical history and takes no medications. During your assessment, you hear wheezing over all lung fields. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg and his heart rate is 110 beats/min. In addition to giving him 100% oxygen, the MOST important treatment for this patient is:
A 59-year-old male with a history of emphysema complains of an acute worsening of his dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain following a forceful cough. Your assessment reveals that he has a barrel-shaped chest, unilaterally diminished breath sounds, and tachycardia. What is the MOST likely cause of this patient’s condition?
A pleural effusion is MOST accurately defined as:
You are dispatched to a residence for a 67-year-old female who was awakened by shortness of breath and sharp chest pain. Her husband tells you that she was recently discharged from the hospital after having hip surgery. Your assessment reveals dried blood around her mouth, facial cyanosis, and an oxygen saturation of 88%. This patient’s presentation is MOST consistent with:
Hyperventilation could be associated with all of the following, EXCEPT:
A young female is unconscious after intentionally ingesting a large amount of aspirin. You will MOST likely find her respirations:
Alkalosis is a condition that occurs when:
Common signs and symptoms of acute hyperventilation syndrome include:
A 60-year-old male presents with acute respiratory distress. He is conscious and alert, has pink and dry skin, and has respirations of 24 breaths/min with adequate depth. Which of the following treatment modalities is MOST appropriate for this patient?
You receive a call for a 70-year-old female with respiratory distress. Her husband tells you that she has congestive heart failure; however, he does not think that she has been taking her medications as prescribed. The patient is laboring to breathe, appears tired, and has cyanosis around her lips. You should:
When auscultating the lungs of a patient with respiratory distress, you hear adventitious sounds. This means that the patient has:
Harsh, high-pitched inspiratory sounds are characteristic of:
Albuterol is a generic name for:
A 62-year-old man with a history of congestive heart failure presents with severe respiratory distress and an oxygen saturation of 82%. When you auscultate his lungs, you hear widespread rales. He is conscious and alert, is able to follow simple commands, and can only speak in two- to three-word sentences at a time. You should: